Congenital esotropia is defined as the onset of constant crossing in children lower than 6 months of age.. The cause of Congenital esotropia is partialy understood. We know that these children have difficulty using the two eyes together, but with early surgery these children can learn to use both eyes together.Patients with Congenital esotropia generally have equal visual acuity .However, there's increased threat for the development of amblyopia in the eye that crosses more frequently, If one eye is turned in more constantly than the other. Amblyopia is poor vision in an eye that's structurally normal. It prevent due to the brain ignores input from an eye. When an kids looks with either eye an equal quantum of time, the threat of amblyopia is less. Surgical treatment has been the accepted mode of treatment for Congenital esotropia for decades. The present review of recent literature evaluates the current standing of type of surgery performed and right timing of surgery to achieve optimal results.
• Parents may notice that one or either eye turns inwards towards the nose either all the time or veritably constantly.
• About 50 of children with infantile esotropia develop amblyopia( ‘ lazy eye ’). This can be discovered if one eye is covered and the child struggles to see typically.
Congenital esotropia is infrequently an isolated problem. There are several conditions that can be present at the time the crossing is first noted or can develop latterly in babyhood.
• Inferior oblique muscle overaction – When the child looks to the side, the eye looking toward the nose moves overhead.
• Seperated vertical deviation– When the child is inattentive or daydreaming, either eye may drift overhead toward the ceiling
• Fusional maldevelopment nystagmus – When one eye is covered, the other eye may appear to dance around until both eyes are uncovered again
• A or V pattern – When a child looks upward or downward, the eye crossing may get inferior
• Amblyopia – Reduced vision power of one eye
• Reduced or absent stereopsis – Absence of fine depth perception, similar as that required to thread a needle
• Generally not noted instantly at birth but within 6 months of age
• May be secondary to basic neurological or experimental issues, thus important to do thorough history and examination
• Most finest surgical result when performed between 6 and 24 months
• Bilateral medium rectus recession
• Ipsilateral medium rectus recession and lateral rectus resection
• Surgical measures should be made from the limbus
• If veritably large angle deviation, may need to do 3 or 4 horizontal muscle surgery
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